What Is the Purpose of a Groove Weld Root Face?

A single weld joint consists of different parts that work together to provide stability and durability to the entire weld joint. Knowing the components and how they function improves your welding. What is the purpose of a groove weld root face?

The purpose of a groove weld’s root face is to reduce the burn-through that can occur with a feather edge. A strong root face will contribute to good root fusion and penetration.

This article explores groove welds and the purpose of a groove weld root face. I also describe the types of welds in welding and the difference between fillet and groove welds.

What Are Groove Welds?

A groove weld is an opening between the two metal pieces of a joint that provides the space to hold the metal. The weld refers to beads deposited in the opening, and groove welds come second to fillet welds as the most used welds. 

Excluding flare and square groove wells, all groove welds require the removal of metal from either one or both faces of the metal workpiece. There are seven types of groove welds, and they are:

  1. Single V groove weld
  2. Square groove weld
  3. Single U groove weld
  4. Single bevel groove weld
  5. Single J groove weld
  6. Flare bevel weld
  7. Flare V weld

Groove welds are used to make different weld joints, except lap joints. The joints you can make with groove welds include:

  • Corner joints are popular in the sheet metal industry and commonly applied to make boxes and box frames. The types of groove weld used to create corner joints include V groove weld, flare V groove weld, bevel groove weld, etc.
  • You can use edge joints for sheet metal pieces with flanging edges. The groove welds featured here are J groove weld, square groove weld, bevel groove weld, U groove weld, etc.
  • You form tee joints when the two metal pieces join at a 90-degree angle at the center of the component or plate. Flare-bevel groove weld, J groove weld, and bevel groove weld are used to create this joint.

You can make groove welds on the surface of a workpiece, between the edges of two workpieces, between the surfaces of two workpieces, or between the edges and surfaces of two workpieces.

What Is the Purpose of a Groove Weld Root Face?

To fully understand the purpose of a groove weld root face, you should know what each term means. A root face is the flat surface of the groove weld adjacent to the root of the joint. The base metal surfaces intersect with the back of a weld at the root.

The bevel angle, root gap, and root face are essential parts of any groove weld for any process. The root face is about 2.5mm, and it is important for joint fusion and penetration.

You can view the root as a line, an area, or a point in a cross-section. A root face of zero width is called a root edge.

A strong weld joint has a reasonable degree of penetration, and this penetration has specific determinants, including:

  • The root gap
  • The material thickness
  • The arc length of the root face.

The weld root’s strength gives the structure resistance to corrosion by weathering, impact, and vibrations. Welding defects caused by a faulty root create suitable conditions for corrosion—porosity, inclusions, and cracks.

Different Types of Welds in Welding?

Among the different types of welds, you are now familiar with groove welds. Here is an outline of other welds and their applications:

  1. Fillet welds—joins cross-section of infrastructure and flanges to pipes. 
  1. Surfacing welds are made via surfacing welding, a process that deposits one metal on another to get the properties you desire on a base metal. You add the weld to the surface instead of the joints

Suppose you want to increase the wear resistance of a metal piece; you place it with another metal with greater wear resistance and surface weld them. You also surface weld to build up metal parts’ broken or worn-out surfaces.

  1. Slot welds join one metal surface to another through a hole or an elongated cavity that may be filled with the weld metal or open at one end. It helps to prevent buckling in overlapped joints and in transmitting shear force in lap joints.
  1. Seam welds are continuous wells made between two overlapping joint members. It is ideal for manufacturing gas- and liquid-tight vessels.
  1. Flash welds are a method of resistance welding, used in the railroad industry, and they require no filler metal.

Spot welds, plug welds, and upset welds are also types of welds.

What Is the Difference Between Fillet Weld and Groove Weld?

A fillet weld joins two metal parts at a right angle in a tee joint, corner joint, or lap joint. They are the most popular joints used, especially in steel erection.

Except it is stated expressly that the strength for the application requires a more complicated complete joint penetration (CJP) weld, fillet welds are the standard on structural job sites for steel erection.

Focusing on their application on a structural job site, these are their differences:

  • Groove joints make up a small percentage of joints on the job site, while you can find fillet joints throughout a project.
  • Welders can complete fillet welds faster and do more of them than groove joints that take a long time to complete and require highly skilled welders.
  • Fillet welds are more economical because they require less edge preparation.

When you are on the job site, you want to maximize productivity within the budget and keep the project schedule. Completing high-quality welds as fast as possible is crucial to meeting your goals.

Fillet welds can help you in this regard, considering the speed and ease with which you can make them.

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